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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Conseptions of Intelligence

Article 1, Article 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5

5 comments:

  1. ULASAN & KRITIKAN ARTIKEL 1

    Mengetahui sesuatu tentang kecerdasan murid dapat membantu guru untuk merancang pengajaran mereka. Murid lebih cerdas boleh diharapkan untuk bergerak cukup cepat melalui program-program kajian teoritis; murid kurang cerdas cenderung kemajuan jauh lebih lambat. Dan jika guru menyedari bahawa murid-murid di kelasnya memiliki tingkat kecerdasan yang berbeza-beza, dia tahu bahawa program pengajian nya harus canggih dan cukup fleksibel untuk membolehkan pengenalan konsep-konsep baru, penjelasan dan kemahiran untuk pelajar yang berbeza pada masa yang berbeza .
    Kedua, kecerdasan murid menilai 'membentuk ekspektasi tentang tahap normal mereka belajar di kawasan-kawasan teoritis, yang pada gilirannya memudahkan pengenalan abnormal kejayaan dan kegagalan. Ketika seorang murid yang sangat cerdas muncul tidak dapat memahami konsep baru, atau murid dari kecerdasan sedikit muncul untuk menguasai kemahiran teori baru sangat cepat, sesuatu yang terjadi yang berdiri yang memerlukan penyelidikan. Dalam kes yang pertama, guru harus mempertimbangkan sekurang-kurangnya kemungkinan sebagai berikut: (i) bahawa penjelasan nya konsep baru dalam beberapa cara kurang atau tidak jelas, (ii) bahawa murid terganggu, mungkin dengan masalah di rumah atau di taman bermain, (iii) bahawa murid, walaupun cukup cerdas, sama sekali tidak tertarik pada topik ini, dan (iv) bahawa penilaian nya murid sebagai berdiri sangat cerdas perlu disemak. Dalam kes terkini, kemungkinan dia perlu dipertimbangkan termasuk: (i) bahawa dia telah menemui cara yang berkesan pengajaran kemahiran tersebut, (ii) bahawa kejayaan murid adalah hanya jelas dan kerja menunjukkan kemahiran baru disalin dari teman atau diisi oleh anggota keluarga, (iii) bahawa murid, walaupun mempunyai ketidakmampuan untuk kegiatan teori-intensif yang lain, namun memiliki bakat untuk yang satu ini, dan, sekali lagi, (iv) bahawa tahap murid tentang perisikan telah salah didiagnosis. Itu penting bahawa guru menyiasat abnormal kejayaan dan kegagalan kerana hal yang dari berbagai kemungkinan penjelasan bagi mereka adalah benar, tetapi kelainan tersebut hanya boleh datang kepada terang dengan latar belakang harapan tentang tahap normal individu murid 'belajar.

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  2. ULASAN & KRITIKAN ARTIKEL 2

    the multi-faceted nature of intelligence partly forces a reduction to aspects in order to analyse facets and enhance understanding. In contrast to Roth, in my view, the method of reducing the phenomenon ‘intelligence’ to some of it’s components is not per sewrong but the use of the concept to represent a particular aspect which turns qualification into Judgement. Here, it is to argue with evolution like Roitblat did. In general, the interdisciplinary approach within Cognitive Science is in my view very interesting as the different facets are looked at from different perspectives. Thus, the phenomenon cannot be defined but can be described in order to evoke a more detailled image than a definition would be able to do. Contextual relationships are then isolated and considered in more depth at least to a certain extent.

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  3. ULASAN & KRITIKAN ARTIKEL 3


    Theory of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner is comprised seven types of intelligences:

    1. Linguistic Intelligence

    Linguistic intelligence is one's skill in using language and is the ability to learn languages to achieve a specific goal. People like writers, poets, and lawyers are often high on linguistic intelligence.

    2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

    The ability to analyze problems logically is termed as Logical – Mathematical intelligence. It involves skills such as solving problems, completing mathematical operations and to investigate hypothesis. People who are high on this type of intelligence tend to be logical thinkers with high deductive reasoning skills.

    3. Spatial Intelligence

    Spatial intelligence refers to an individual's ability to represent the spatial world in his or her own min, like transforming mental images is a spatial skill. It is the ability to comprehend 3-D images in real world. Architects, urban planners, geographers, cartographers, pilots, and sailors tend to be high in spatial intelligence abilities.

    4. Musical Intelligence

    Musical intelligence includes abilities in composing and performing music and in recognizing and composing musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. It also includes skills in recognizing and appreciating musical patterns. Individuals high in musical intelligence are singers, composers and artists.

    5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

    Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence refers to an individual's ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. According to Gardner, mental and physical abilities are related. Athletes, dancers, actors, and performers often display high levels of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

    6. Interpersonal Intelligence

    Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with an individual's ability understand the intentions, motivations, and desires of other people. Such skills are beneficial in working and getting along with others. Those high in interpersonal intelligence are often educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders, counsellors and social workers.

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  4. ULASAN & KRITIKAN ARTIKEL 4

    Gilbert Ryle’s dispositional analysis of the concept of intelligence makes the error of assimilating intelligence to the category of dispositional or semi-dispositional concepts. Far from being a dispositional concept, intelligence is an episodic concept that refers neither to dispositions nor to ‘knowing how,’ but to a fashion or style of proceeding whose significance is adverbial. Being derivative from the function of the adverb ‘intelligently,’ the concept of intelligence does not have essential reference to specific verbs but rather to the manner or style of proceeding of nearly any verb that is descriptive of the proceedings of an agent. Intelligence- words are expressive of a manner of doing things that may be narrated in one of two ways. The first takes the form of a series of contrasts which, when put together as a list of disjuncts, may be called the contrast-criteria of intelligence. The second may take the form of the characteristic activities which comprise the criteria of intelligence.

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  5. ULASAN & KRITIKAN ARTIKEL 5

    Intelligence is an umbrella term describing a property of the mind including related abilities, such as the capacities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, learning from past experiences, planning, and problem solving.

    Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but is also observed in animals and plants. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines or the simulation of intelligence in machines.

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